Limonene is a hydrocarbon chemically classified as a cyclic terpene. Its most common form, or isomer, is d-limonene, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature.
The rinds of fruits in the Rutaceae family, commonly known as citrus fruits, contain large quantities of d-limonene that give these fruits their distinctive odor. By comparison, l-limonene smells more like turpentine. D-limonene is named after lemons, from which it was first derived. Citrus fruits are also the most commercially important source of d-limonene, which is extracted by steam distillation or centrifugal separation.
D-limonene is often used for its lemon scent. It is also a precursor for carvone, which gives caraway seeds their flavor. This process consists of three basic chemical reactions, beginning with the selective addition of nitrosyl chloride to the d-limonene. This product is converted to its oxime with a base, and a hydroxylamine is removed to produce carvone.
The fragrance and solvent properties of d-limonene also make it useful in a range of other applications, especially cosmetic products. It is a popular additive in food and oral medication where its citrus taste can mask bitter flavors.
D-limonene is an adenosine agonist, meaning that its effects are similar to those of other substances containing adenosine. Many neurotransmitters contain adenosine, which provides d-limonene with its sedative properties. D-limonene is also commonly used to relieve digestive discomfort such as heartburn.
The primary use of d-limonene supplements is for the management of digestive discomfort. It may also be helpful for maintaining bowel motility, managing gallstones and weight management.
Gastric reflux occurs when food fails to move through the digestive tract at the proper pace, typically because bile backs up into the stomach. Multiple studies show that daily supplements of d-limonene can help manage digestive discomfort.
D-limonene may also help you to maintain regular bowel movements. It is especially helpful when sluggish bowels are caused by the fungus Candida albicans, a common source of intestinal infection.
D-limonene may help to dissolve cholesterol, making it beneficial for managing gallstones. This effect can also help maintain a healthy blood cholesterol profile and circulation in the lymphatic system.
D-limonene is a mild appetite suppressant, so it may be helpful for managing your weight. It is especially useful for this purpose if you have unhealthy blood sugar levels.
Gastric reflux is the strongest indication that you may need d-limonene supplements. Other causes of stomach irritation may also mean that you can benefit from d-limonene. D-limonene may be useful if you have difficulty in having at least one bowel movement per day, especially when you have a fungal infection. Gallstones that are primarily composed of cholesterol may also be a significant sign that you may need d-limonene, especially for women.
D-lemonene, D lemonene, l-limonene, lemon scent
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